Feb. 11, 2021
Here is the article.
It is surprising to learn so much from 30 minutes reading. I also went over the article with my friend using Skype share screen product feature.
I just quickly copied some content to remind myself good learning experience.
Divide a data store into a set of horizontal partitions or shards. This can improve scalability when storing and accessing large volumes of data.
Context and problem
A data store hosted by a single server might be subject to the following limitations:
Storage space. A data store for a large-scale cloud application is expected to contain a huge volume of data that could increase significantly over time. A server typically provides only a finite amount of disk storage, but you can replace existing disks with larger ones, or add further disks to a machine as data volumes grow. However, the system will eventually reach a limit where it isn't possible to easily increase the storage capacity on a given server.
Computing resources. A cloud application is required to support a large number of concurrent users, each of which run queries that retrieve information from the data store. A single server hosting the data store might not be able to provide the necessary computing power to support this load, resulting in extended response times for users and frequent failures as applications attempting to store and retrieve data time out. It might be possible to add memory or upgrade processors, but the system will reach a limit when it isn't possible to increase the compute resources any further.
Network bandwidth. Ultimately, the performance of a data store running on a single server is governed by the rate the server can receive requests and send replies. It's possible that the volume of network traffic might exceed the capacity of the network used to connect to the server, resulting in failed requests.
Geography. It might be necessary to store data generated by specific users in the same region as those users for legal, compliance, or performance reasons, or to reduce latency of data access. If the users are dispersed across different countries or regions, it might not be possible to store the entire data for the application in a single data store.
Scaling vertically by adding more disk capacity, processing power, memory, and network connections can postpone the effects of some of these limitations, but it's likely to only be a temporary solution. A commercial cloud application capable of supporting large numbers of users and high volumes of data must be able to scale almost indefinitely, so vertical scaling isn't necessarily the best solution.